2023 WS Runners,
Congratulations on being selected to run in the 50th Annual Western States 100-Mile Endurance Run on June 24-25, 2023. This document contains information from the website that you must be familiar with. This includes the risks of running, the rules, and the race week agenda. All of this is available on the website as individual pages but we’ve gathered them here in one document. Print this out if you want but know that the most current version of this is always on the website.
- Course Description
- Medical and Other Risks
- Performance Rules
- Crew Rules
- Pacer Rules
- Aid Stations
- Race Week Agenda
The Western States Endurance Run is conducted along the Western States Trail starting at Olympic Valley, California, and ending in Auburn, California. The Run begins at 5:00 a.m. on Saturday of the last full weekend in June at the west end of Olympic Valley. Runners must reach the finish line no later than 10:59:59 a.m. on the following day in order to be eligible for an award. All entrants must strictly adhere to the Performance Rules, Rules for Pacers, Rules for Crews and to the pre-event briefing by Run Management to avoid disqualification and to remain eligible for an award. The Western States Endurance Run follows the middle portion of the famous Western States Trail, a nationally dedicated recreational trail that stretches from Salt Lake City, Utah, to Sacramento, California. One of the most arduous organized running events in the U.S., the Western States 100 is truly the "Ultimate Challenge" for the long distance runner. Entry in this event should not be taken lightly! Beginning in Olympic Valley, site of the 1960 Winter Olympic Games, the trail ascends from the valley floor (elevation 6,200 feet) to Emigrant Pass (elevation 8,750 feet), a climb of 2,550 vertical feet in the first 4½ miles. From the pass, following the original trails used by the gold and silver miners of the 1850’s, runners travel west, climbing another 15,540 feet and descending 22,970 feet before reaching Auburn, a small town in the heart of California's historic gold country. Most of the trail passes through remote and rugged territory. People who are unfamiliar with the area should use caution when planning training runs, especially in the high country. Before leaving, let someone know where you will be running and when you will return. REMEMBER THAT MUCH OF THIS TERRITORY IS ACCESSIBLE ONLY BY FOOT, HORSE OR HELICOPTER. Due to the remoteness and inaccessibility of the trail, the Western States Endurance Run differs substantially from other organized runs. Adequate mental and physical preparation are of utmost importance to each runner, for the high mountains and deep canyons, although beautiful, are relentless in their challenge and unforgiving to the ill-prepared.
- Course Route: The Run will follow the same basic course used since 1986 unless snow conditions force a route change.
- Familiarity: Knowledge of the trail offers both physical and mental advantages during the Run. Participants should make a reasonable effort to run as much of the trail as possible before Run Day. Particular attention should be given to those sections that you expect to run in the dark, when your mental and physical energy may be lagging.
- After Dark: AS ALMOST A HALF OF THE TRAIL MAY BE TRAVELED AT NIGHT, EACH RUNNER SHOULD CARRY TWO LED FLASHLIGHTS. If your lights fail, wait for another runner with a light. Do not try to find your way in the dark. If you are the last runner, wait for the Search and Rescue sweep teams. Plan to pick up a flashlight in Foresthill, regardless of what time you reach that point. If you are a 28 to 30-hour runner, plan to pick up a flashlight in Michigan Bluff.
- Weather: Since temperatures during the Run can range from 20 degrees to above 110 degrees Fahrenheit, participants should be fully prepared for both extremes. Weather conditions are unpredictable and can change rapidly.
- River Crossing: At 78 miles, runners must ford the American River near the Rucky Chucky crossing. The ford is dangerous and SHOULD NOT BE ATTEMPTED ON TRAINING RUNS. On Run Day, a guide rope will be stretched across the river, with personnel available for assistance. River rafts are used in high-water years.
- Wilderness: The remoteness of the trail can lead to disaster for anyone not experienced in the "backwoods." For your own well-being and survival, we recommend that you do not attempt a training run alone without letting someone know exactly where you are going and what time you will return. Trail markings will not be completed until a few days prior to the Run. We strongly advise people who are unfamiliar with the area to buddy up with a "native guide." Carry ample fluids, a water filtration pump and food supplies. There are dry stretches of over 8 miles during the Run and of 16 or more miles during training runs.
- Trail Markings: Trail markings will consist of pink surveyor's tape tied to branches, "W.S. TRAIL" signs nailed to trees, and arrows and signs. ("Pioneer Express Trail" markers are located along portions of the trail. Do not refer to these as Run markers.) In addition, reflectors will be placed along the last 38 miles of the trail for the dark hours. Run Management does its best to provide an adequately marked trail, but it is necessary for runners to continually remain alert as they travel. On occasion, persons not associated with the event have altered or removed course markings, or Run management cannot place signage at a critical turn on Run day due to unusual circumstances. A working knowledge of the trail, particularly of those miles that will be covered in the dark, will be of infinite benefit to the runner who attempts the Western States Endurance Run. YOU are ultimately responsible to follow the correct course.
- Drops: If you have to drop out of the Run at a point where your crew is unavailable, we will make every reasonable effort to get you to the finish or to the nearest major checkpoint that is still in operation, particularly if you are in need of medical attention. In non-emergency situations, you may have to wait several hours before being evacuated. Runners having to drop from the Run BEFORE the Foresthill aid station will be taken to Foresthill. Runners having to drop AFTER Foresthill will be taken to the finish line. Our principal responsibility is to put on a Run, not to run a shuttle service for non-finishers; so please be patient. Aid stations will close when the footed sweeps or drag riders arrive.
- Trail Etiquette: Please be courteous to hikers, other runners and horsemen. Collisions on these narrow trails may be disastrous. If you wish to pass another runner, ask for "trail right" or "trail left" before attempting to pass. Slower runners must yield the trail to runners wishing to pass. Horses may be spooked by the sudden appearance of a runner, with serious consequences to the rider. Stop and step off the trail to let oncoming horses pass. Runners should never pass a horse from behind without first notifying the rider.
- Volunteers: Approximately 1,500 dedicated volunteers help out at each Western States Endurance Run. They are truly the life-blood of the Run and will do everything possible to make your day a success. Many spend more hours out on the trail than do the runners themselves. Please be polite and make a point to thank them. Without the volunteers, there would be no Western States 100.
The Western States Endurance Run is one of the most physically challenging events in the world and participation in it presents numerous medical risks, many of which can be extremely serious or on rare occasions fatal. Participation in this event is at the runner's own risk. Although Run Management has experienced medical personnel at various points along the course, the inaccessibility of much of the trail may make it difficult or impossible for medical assistance to reach the runner in a timely fashion. Many sections of the trail are accessible only by foot, horse or helicopter. Each runner is encouraged to consult with his or her own personal care physician regarding any physical or medical limitations before attempting the Run. Runners’ weights will not be taken at check-in or at aid stations during the race. Rather than (potentially inaccurate) weight data, the medical staff will focus on how the runner feels and looks and his or her mental status at each medical aid station. It is important for each entrant to recognize the potential physical and mental stresses which may evolve from participation in this Run. Runners may be subjected to extremes of heat and cold. They may develop hypothermia, hyperthermia, dehydration, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, disorientation and mental and physical exhaustion. Run Management and the medical staff strive to work with runners. They will do all they reasonably can to ensure “safe passage” to Auburn, but ultimately runners must understand their own limitations. This is one event where, as Dr. George Sheehan has said, it is better to follow the dictates of your body — not your ambitions! Adequate physical and mental conditioning prior to the Run is mandatory. If you have not been able to prepare properly, do not attempt to run! Runners should appreciate the risks associated with participation in this event. Actions may have to be taken on your behalf under extreme time constraints and adverse circumstances. We will make reasonable efforts to give assistance whenever possible. Ultimately and primarily you are in charge, and you are likely to be solely responsible for creating your own crisis that we must then respond to. Be careful, be responsible, and do not exceed your own abilities and limitations. IN THE EVENT THAT A RUNNER REQUIRES EMERGENCY EVACUATION BY GROUND or HELICOPTER-AMBULANCE, THE RUNNER ASSUMES ALL FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS CONNECTED WITH THIS SERVICE. RUN MANAGEMENT IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DEBTS INCURRED. Some of the main risks of the Run, but certainly not all of them, are listed here. These should be understood and remembered by all runners, before and during the event. Please note that death can result from several of the risk conditions discussed below or from other aspects of participation in the Western States Endurance Run.
- Renal Shutdown: Cases of renal shutdown (acute renal failure) have been reported in other ultramarathons and have occurred in varying degrees in the Western States Endurance Run. Renal shutdown (known technically as acute kidney injury or AKI) occurs from muscle tissue injury which causes the release of the protein myoglobininto the blood. Myoglobin is cleared from the blood by the kidneys and will look brownish-colored in the urine, but it is also a toxin to the kidneys and can cause acute vasospasm in the small arteries that supply the kidneys leading to AKI as a result of rhabdomyolysis. Appropriate training is key to prevention of AKI from rhabdomyolysis, and adequate hydration is key to both prevention and treatment of AKI, a syndrome which can be worsened by the use of NSAIDs. Three Western States runners have required a series of dialysis treatments, and others have been hospitalized several days with IV fluids to correct partial renal shutdown. While usually reversible in healthy people, AKI may cause permanent impairment of kidney function. IT IS CRUCIAL TO CONTINUE HYDRATING FOR SEVERAL DAYS FOLLOWING THE RUN OR UNTIL THE URINE IS LIGHT YELLOW AND OF NORMAL FREQUENCY. The Terrible Three: WS research has demonstrated that starting the Run with a pre-existing injury, low training miles due to the injury, and masking the injury during the Run using anti-inflammatories such as ibuprofen, could very well earn the runner a trip to the hospital with acute renal failure. The lesson is simple; if you are determined to start the Run with an injury and low training miles, do not attempt to mask the pain with a pill. Let common sense be your guide and stop when your body tells you to stop.
- Heat Stroke/Hyperthermia: Your muscles produce tremendous amounts of heat when running up and down hill. The faster the pace, the more heat is produced. In addition to the generation of heat from metabolism, environmental heat stress can be significant during the Run. In 1989, radiated heat off the rocks measured at 114 degrees F. Heat stroke can cause death, kidney failure and brain damage. It is important that runners be aware of the symptoms of impending heat injury. These include but are not limited to: nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, faintness, irritability, lassitude, confusion, weakness, and rapid heart rate. Impending heat stroke may be preceded by a decrease in sweating and the appearance of goose bumps on the skin, especially over the chest. Heat stroke may progress from minimal symptoms to complete collapse in a very short period of time. A light-colored shirt and cap, particularly if kept wet during the Run, can help. Acclimatization to heat requires approximately two weeks. We recommend training 90 minutes in 90 degree F heat or greater for at least two weeks prior to the Run if at all possible. If signs of heat exhaustion occur, we recommend rapid cooling by applying ice to the groin, neck and armpits.
- Risks Associated With Low Blood Sodium: Low blood sodium concentrations (hyponatremia) in ultramarathon runners have been associated with severe illness requiring hospitalization and several deaths among participants of shorter events. Generally, those individual who are symptomatic with hyponatremia have been overhydrating. But, hyponatremia may occur with weight gain and weight loss, so weight change is not helpful in making the diagnosis. Because of the release of stored water when you metabolize glycogen stores, you should expect to lose 3-5% of your body weight during the run to maintain appropriate hydration. It is important to note that hyponatremia may in fact worsen after the Run, as unabsorbed fluid in the stomach can be rapidly absorbed once you stop exercising. Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia may include bloating, nausea, vomiting, headache, confusion, incoordination, dizziness and fatigue. If left untreated, hyponatremia may progress to seizures, pulmonary and cerebral edema, coma and death. The best way to avoid developing symptomatic hyponatremia is to not overhydrate. There is no evidence that consuming additional sodium or using electrolyte-containing drinks rather than water is preventative of exercise-induced hyponatremia. If symptoms develop, one needs to assess whether they are due to overhydration. If that is the case, then stop fluid intake until you remove excess fluid through urination. If severe symptoms present, this is a medical emergency. The runner should be treated with intravenous hypertonic saline and transported to a hospital. Since the typical fluid used for intravenous hydration (referred to as normal saline) can exacerbate exercise-associated hyponatremia, we try to avoid such treatment at the Run unless we are certain that the individual is not hyponatremic.
- Snow Hazards: Snow levels in the high country vary greatly from year to year. Wear shoes with good gripping characteristics, but falling will still be likely. Snow conditions may vary from soft and slushy to rock-hard and icy. Run slowly and with particular care and concentration in the snow. Sun glasses are highly recommended if considerable snow will be encountered.
- Effects of Cold/Hypothermia: Temperatures may be near zero in the high country and drop into the 40-degree to 50-degree range during the night portion of the Run. Hypothermia is a potentially serious risk, especially at night since one's energy reserves will have been depleted from 20 or more hours of running. Hypothermia can strike very quickly, particularly when pace slows from exhaustion or injury. The initial warning signs of hypothermia often include lethargy, disorientation and confusion. The runner will feel very cold with uncontrolled shivering and may become confused, unaware of the surroundings, and may possibly be an immediate danger to themself. Staying well-nourished, adequately hydrated and appropriately clothed will help avoid hypothermia. It is important that runners have access to warm clothing through their support crews, drop bags, or both.
- Wildlife Hazards: Rattlesnakes, bears, mountain lions and other potentially hazardous forms of wildlife live on the course and have surprised runners in the past. Keep alert and be careful where you place your feet and hands, especially at night.
- Vehicle Hazards: More than 95% of the Western States Endurance Run is run on mountain trails and fire roads which are closed to vehicles. Nevertheless, there are several areas on the course where runners and pacers must be watchful for automobiles. Some of these areas are:
- Bath Road to Foresthill: This portion of the trail parallels Auburn-Foresthill Road. There is a wide shoulder with trail; run on it.
- Mosquito Ridge Road: 0.6 miles after leaving the Foresthill Aid Station, the trail crosses Mosquito Ridge Road, which sees heavy traffic. The crossing has good visibility; stop and look both ways!
- Highway 49: The most dangerous road crossing in the Run is at Highway 49 (93.5 miles into the course). This is also a checkpoint; so there are volunteers and crews available should you require assistance. Traffic is generally heavy. The crossing has good visibility in both directions; once again, stop and look both ways. You will make this crossing at night and in a fatigued condition.
- Robie Point to the Finish Line: The last 1.3 miles of the course are run on the city streets of Auburn. The streets are residential and traffic is light, but run with caution.
- Use of Drugs: No drugs of any kind should be taken before, during or immediately after the Run! Many drugs can increase the risk of heat stroke. A partial list of problem drugs includes amphetamines, tranquilizers, and diuretics. It was necessary to remove one entrant from the Run in 1984 because the runner received an injection to help alleviate nausea and vomiting. This runner was at severe risk without realizing it. There is little known about drug reactions with the stress of running 100 miles.
- Injuries From Falling: Falling is an ever-present danger on the Western States Trail, with potentially serious consequences. Much of the trail is narrow, uneven and rutted.
- Altitude Sickness: High altitude plus exertion can produce various degrees of high altitude sickness. This has the potential to progress to severe lung and brain swelling, resulting in death but is unlikely to present more than an annoying headache during the limited time you will be at adequate altitudes to cause symptoms. The initial treatment is to seek a lower altitude, which you will naturally be doing on this course.
- Rhabdomyolysis: It has been found that some degree of muscle cell death in the legs occurs from participation in the Run. The recovery can take several months. This seems to be a bigger problem in runners who have exerted themselves beyond their level of training. Medical analysis of blood samples taken from Western States runners shows that this occurs to some degree in all runners.
- Overuse Injuries: Obviously, innumerable overuse injuries can occur, especially in the knee and the ankle. Sprains and fractures can easily occur on these rough trails. Blisters have prevented many participants from finishing. See our foot care page for preventative strategies.
- Common Fatigue: One of the dangers you will encounter is fatigue. Fatigue, combined with the effects of dehydration, hypothermia, hyperthermia, hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, sleep deprivation and other debilitating conditions can produce disorientation and irrationality.
- Poison Oak: Poison oak can be found in abundance along several sections of the trail, particularly the last 30 miles.
- Difficulty in Gaining Access to or Locating Injured Participants: Much of the Western States trail is remote and inaccessible by motor vehicle. Accordingly, in spite of the many layers of safety precautions instituted by Run Management (including radio communications, rescue helicopters on standby, foot patrols, mounted search and rescue personnel and other emergency services and medical personnel at many checkpoints), there is absolutely no assurance that aid or rescue assistance will arrive in time to give you effective assistance should you become sick, incapacitated or injured. In previous years, ambulances and other emergency vehicles have experienced difficulties in gaining access over remote roads jammed with crew vehicles, and other delays have resulted.
- Getting Lost: Although Run Management endeavors to mark the Western States course, it is definitely possible to lose the trail. If you believe at any time that you may not be on the correct trail, do not attempt to find your way cross country. If you are sure of your route, backtrack to where you last saw a trail marker and try to find other markers showing the direction of the trail. If you are unable to find your way, stay where you are! Wandering randomly will likely take you farther from the trail and reduce your chances of being found. If you do become injured, exhausted or ill, STAY ON THE TRAIL. You will be found there either by another runner or the sweeps who stay behind the last runner and have radio communication. If you feel dizzy, disoriented or confused, do not risk falling. Sit or lie down on the trail until you recover or are found. An unconscious runner even a few feet off the trail could be impossible to find until it is too late. If you are assisted by individuals who are not associated with Run Management and you elect to leave the trail, you MUST notify the official at the nearest checkpoint of your decision to withdraw and surrender your official wristband.
The purpose of these rules is to ensure the Run’s integrity as a test of individual performance, providing equal conditions for all. The guiding principles of the Performance Rules are as simple as play fair, be safe, and respect the land.
Runners must abide by all rules and directives of the Western States Endurance Run (WSER) as set forth in the WSER Participant Guide, the WSER website, the Performance Rules, Crew Rules, and Pacer Rules, and all other official Run communications, including any final written or in-person briefing instructions (the “Run Rules”).
1. Each runner’s official run number must be worn prominently on the front of the body or hat and be easily visible at all times. No unofficial runners are allowed on the course.
2. Runners must follow the marked trail at all times. Cutting switchbacks or taking other off-trail shortcuts is not permitted. Any runner departing from the official trail must return to the point of departure on foot before continuing.
3. Runners may not accept aid or assistance from their crew or other spectators in between crew-accessible aid stations. No muling by pacers is allowed. Runners may not store supplies along the trail.
4. Runners must complete the entire course under their own power. No physical or mechanical aids are allowed, including, but not limited to, trekking poles, hiking sticks, or removable crampons. Shoes must be worn as manufactured, without material external modifications.
5. Runners are responsible for the actions of their crews and pacers. Everyone, including crews and pacers, must comply with all Run Rules (including all parking, aid, and access instructions) or risk disqualification of their runner.
6. Each runner must be checked in at all aid stations and must leave the aid station before the designated cut-off time. Runners returning to the aid station after the cut-off time will be pulled from the Run. All cut-off times will be strictly enforced.
7. Medical personnel may evaluate the condition of any runner at any time or place during the Run and have complete authority to determine whether the runner may continue in the Run. Refusal by the runner to cooperate in any way may result in immediate disqualification.
8. Injection of fluids or drugs (intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous) during the event may result in immediate disqualification.
9. Any runner who intends to drop out must turn in their Run wristband to the nearest aid station captain. This serves as official notice of the runner’s withdrawal from the Run. Runners who drop from the Run without turning in their wristband will be classified as “lost” and may be responsible for any costs associated with a search and rescue.
10. Runners must comply with the WSER Drug Testing Policy and Protocols, which includes a zero-tolerance policy regarding the use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs).
11. Littering of any kind is prohibited and threatens our continued use of the Western States Trail. Please respect the natural beauty of our trails and the right of everyone to enjoy them.
12. Runners must refrain from any act of bad sportsmanship.
13. Runners must finish within the 30-hour cutoff time to be included as an official finisher of the Run.
Rule Violation Procedure
Alleging violation of a Run Rule is a very serious matter. Any runner determined to have violated a Run Rule may be disqualified from the Run and/or subject to other penalties, such as a time penalty, fine, disqualification from an age group or other award, a one-year, lifetime, or other ban from the Run, or such other penalty or sanction as deemed appropriate under the circumstances by the WSER Board of Directors.
Protests must be submitted by a registered entrant or Run official and lodged in accordance with the following procedure:
- Whenever possible, protests should be reported as soon as possible to a Run official, such as the next available aid station captain; AND
- All protests must be reported in writing to the Race Director at the finish line by 11:30 a.m. Sunday of the Run weekend; AND
- Written protests to the Race Director must include (1) the name and number (if applicable) of the person lodging the complaint, (2) the name and number of the person alleged to have violated a Run Rule, and (3) a detailed description of the alleged violation, including where and when it occurred, and to whom the violation was initially reported, if applicable.
The final determination regarding what, if any, penalty or sanction is appropriate shall be within the sole discretion of the WSER Board of Directors. Both parties shall be given the opportunity to discuss the allegations with the Race Director and the WSER Board of Directors Protest Committee at a noon hearing on Sunday. In extraordinary circumstances and in its sole discretion, WSER may consider protests filed after the Sunday 11:30 a.m. deadline.
WSER will make its final determination after the Sunday noon hearing or defer final determination to a later date. WSER may take any other action, such as withholding the award of a finisher’s buckle or other award, until such time as it is ready to make its final determination. Failure to appear at the Sunday noon hearing may result in a dismissal of the allegations or a forfeiture of the right to dispute the alleged violation.
Crews must abide by all rules and directives of the Western States Endurance Run as set forth in the WSER Participant Guide, the WSER website, the Performance Rules, Crew Rules, and Pacer Rules, and all other official Run communications, including any final written or oral instructions at the Pre-Run briefing at Olympic Valley (the “Run Rules”).
1. Crews are only allowed at aid stations specifically designated for crews in the current year’s WSER Participant Guide.
2. Crews must comply with all instructions of aid station personnel, including where to meet their runner and requests to remain in certain areas.
3. Crews must remain within a 200-yard radius of the aid station while attending to their runner. Exception: Crews (and pacer, friends, and family) may accompany their runner:
- from the bottom of Bath Road to the intersection of Main Street and California Street
- from the Rucky Chucky far side to the Green Gate aid station
- from Robie Point to the finish line
4. No crews are allowed at the following aid stations: Lyon Ridge, Red Star Ridge, Duncan Canyon (2023 only), Miller’s Defeat, Dusty Corners (2023 only), Last Chance, Devil’s Thumb, El Dorado Creek, Dardanelles, Peachstone, Ford’s Bar, Auburn Lake Trails, and Quarry Road. Crews may assist runners in designated areas on both sides of the Rucky Chucky river crossing.
5. Crews will be limited to one vehicle per runner at all aid stations except Foresthill. Due to narrow access roads, motor homes will not be permitted into any aid stations except Foresthill.
6. No crew vehicles are allowed at the following places:
- Mosquito Ridge Road (closed due to damage in 2023 only)
- Deadwood Ridge
- Bath Road
- the Rucky Chucky river crossing (both sides of the river)
- Green Gate
- Highway 49 Crossing
- Robie Point
7. Crews can meet runners at the following “foot access only” aid stations:
- Rucky Chucky — north (near side): shuttle bus or 3 1/2 mile hike
- Rucky Chucky — south (far side): 3¼ mile hike
- Green Gate: 1¼ mile hike
- Pointed Rocks: 3/4 mile hike
8. Crews must always drive at safe speeds and within speed limits. Access to many aid stations is on windy, narrow, dangerous roads. Speed limits are strictly enforced.
9. Crews must never park in such a way as to block traffic, access to the trail or an aid station, or other parked cars. Vehicles will be towed at the owner’s expense, and their runner may be disqualified.
10. Bicycles are permitted to get to crew-accessible aid stations. However, bicycles may not be used to pace a runner or be ridden on any part of the Western States Trail.
11. No dogs or other pets are allowed at any of the aid stations, the finish line, or on the Western States Trail.
12. No smoking is allowed at any of the aid stations or on the Western States Trail.
13. Littering of any kind at any aid station, on the Western States Trail, or at the finish line is strictly prohibited.
1. Runners are allowed to have one pacer at a time accompany them, starting from the Foresthill aid station (mile 62) to the finish line in Auburn.
2. Runners leaving Michigan Bluff (mile 56) after 8 p.m. may have a pacer from that point.
3. A change of pacer may be made at the following designated locations:
- Foresthill aid station
- Rucky Chucky river crossing (both sides)
- Green Gate aid station
- Pointed Rocks aid station
- Robie Point
4. Each pacer must pick up their pacer number and sign a release form at Pacer Central, either at Olympic Valley on Friday morning or at the Foresthill Elementary School after noon on Saturday. Three pacer numbers (with numbers that correspond with the entrant) will be provided per entrant.
5. Pacers must be at least 18 years of age. Exceptions may be requested in advance of the Run by contacting the Race Director.
6. Pacers must enter and leave each aid station with their runner and must clearly identify themselves to aid station personnel. Pacers may accept aid at aid stations.
7. Pacers may assist their runner with the filling of water bottles or replenishment of supplies at aid stations but may not come into the aid station ahead of their runner, or depart after their runner, in order to speed up the re-fueling process.
8. Pacers may not carry water, food, flashlights, shoes, clothing, or other supplies for their runner or provide any other type of mechanical or physical assistance to their runner on the course. Muling is expressly forbidden. Pacers may carry their own supplies and food.
9. If a runner withdraws from the Run and their pacer wishes to continue, the pacer must remain at the aid station until another runner requests the services of a pacer. The pacer may not continue on the trail without an official Run entrant.
10. Runners are allowed to have more than one person (crew, pacer, friends, family) accompany them on the course at the following designated places (no muling allowed):
- from the bottom of Bath Road to the intersection of Main Street and California Street
- from the Rucky Chucky far side to the Green Gate aid station
- from Robie Point to the finish line
11. Littering of any kind at any aid station, on the Western States Trail, or at the finish line is strictly prohibited.
Perhaps the one thing that stands out most in the memories of every runner who participates in the Western States Endurance Run is the incredible volunteers who work the aid stations. With a staff of over 1,500 volunteers, the support given to the runners is unparalleled. The river crossing alone has a team of 125 personnel. There are 20 aid stations, including 10 major medical checkpoints along the course. The aid station captains have many years of service at Western States and are professionals. The aid stations are well stocked with fluids and a variety of foods. The fluids that are generally available are: water, GU Hydration Drink Tabs and ROCTANE Energy Drink, Sprite® or 7Up® and Coke®. The night aid stations will also have soup, hot coffee and hot chocolate. The foods that are generally available are: salt replacement foods (saltines, pretzels, chips), GU ROCTANE Energy Gels, GU Liquid Energy Gels, fruits (oranges, bananas, melons), potatoes, cookies, candies, sandwiches, etc. Hot soup will be available at several of the aid stations, including the River Crossing, Auburn Lake Trails and Pointed Rocks. Western States is a cupless race. GU will supply reusable HydraPak SpeedCups and HydraPak 5-serving gel flasks to athletes. The use of Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) or Naprosyn can lead to kidney problems when used in abundance and/or under stressful conditions such as running a 100 mile run. We will not provide these medications at our aid stations. If you feel the need to bring and use your own pain medications or anti-inflammatories, then you are willing to assume the responsibility for their use. Our medical staff also has many years of service at Western States. With a staff of approximately 50 physicians, 75 nurses, podiatrists, emergency medical technicians, paramedics and massage therapists, we try to provide the safest and best medical backup available. Some of these people have been participants in the Run, making them all the more aware of the needs of the runners. Without the assistance of these 1,500 invaluable volunteers, there would be no Western States Endurance Run. Many of these volunteers have spent days preparing for the Run and will be at their stations for over 30 hours. They have given up their day to insure you the best possible chance of success. They have given up their weekend to insure you the best possible chance of success. Giving each volunteer the courtesy, respect and sincere thanks that they each richly deserve is all that we ask.
|Checkpoint||Distance||Medical||Drop Bags||Crew Access||Pacer Change||Men's CR||Women's CR||24 hour||30 hour||Cutoff|
|Olympic Valley||0||Yes||Yes (multiple)||5:00am||5:00am||5:00am||5:00am|
|Red Star Ridge||15.8||Yes||Yes||No||7:28am||7:41am||8:20am||9:10am|
|Robinson Flat||30.3||Yes||Yes||Yes (shuttle)||9:26am||9:59am||11:30am||1:10pm||2:10pm|
|El Dorado Creek||52.9||No||12:16pm||1:33pm||4:40pm||7:30pm||8:40pm|
|Michigan Bluff||55.7||Yes||Yes||Yes (shuttle)||After 8pm||12:50pm||2:13pm||5:40pm||8:50pm||9:55pm|
|Ford's Bar (Cal-3)||73||No||3:12pm||10:00pm||2:35am||5:00am*|
|Rucky Chucky||78||Yes||Yes (Far Side)||Yes (Near Side shuttle)||OK||3:46pm||5:48pm||11:10pm||4:00am||5:00am|
|Green Gate||79.8||Yes (on foot)||OK||4:08pm||6:15pm||11:45pm||4:55am||5:50am|
|Auburn Lake Trails||85.2||Yes||Yes||No||4:56pm||7:12pm||1:05am||6:25am||7:15am|
|Pointed Rocks||94.3||Yes||Yes||Yes (on foot)||OK||6:19pm||3:30am||9:15am||9:40am|
|Robie Point||98.9||Yes (on foot)||OK||6:58pm||9:35pm||4:40am||10:38am||11:00am*|
|Placer High School||100.2||Yes||Yes||Yes (multiple)||7:09pm||9:47pm||5:00am||11:00am||11:00am|
- Estimated Pace for Leader, 24 hour, and 30 hour runners is based on past experience, but may vary significantly due to temperature and humidity conditions in the canyons.
- Cut-off times reflect the deadlines for LEAVING the aid station. If you return to an aid station after the cut-off, you will be pulled from the Run. The cut-off times will be strictly enforced by the Cutoff Coordinators or Aid Station Captains. Anyone leaving an aid station after the cut-off time will be disqualified. This rule is for the safety of all participants. IF YOU MISS THE CUT-OFF, YOU MUST STOP. Significant sanctions will apply to anyone breaking this rule.
- *Cutoffs denoted with an asterisk are default cutoffs. The cutoff is identical to the cutoff at the next aid station. These cutoffs are intended for emergency use at hard to access aid stations and must be respected.
- It should be noted that cutoff times are not intended to be a pacing guide. They are quite generous, especially early, and slower runners should focus on the 30-hour time not the cut-off time. If you're close to the cut-offs you're in trouble!
Last updated: February 13, 2023 at 10:30 am
THURSDAY, JUNE 22, 2023 ~ Celebrating the Adventure
7:30 a.m. Shakeout Run Presented by HOKA
Join HOKA, Ultimate Direction, and GU Energy at 7:30am from the Coffeebar for some easy miles to SHAKEOUT the legs. RSVP here.
9:00 a.m. - 11:00 a.m. Official Western States 100 Pre-Race Interview Show, Presented by HOKA (Session #1). Broadcasting from the heart of Olympic Village, join co-hosts Dylan Bowman and Corrine Malcolm as they converse with some of the top contenders in the race, representatives from the WS organization, and significant characters from the event's history.
10:00 a.m. Trek to High Camp for the Flag Raising (Board of Directors member Mo Livermore). Gather at the Start Line Arch, and walk (depending on this year’s snow conditions) or ride the Tram to High Camp (mile 3.0 on the course) for unique inspiration, amazing views and special Western States camaraderie. Wear layered clothing and trail shoes. Short program will begin at High Camp at high noon.
Climb the mountains and get their good tidings. Nature's peace will flow into you as sunshine flows into trees. The winds will blow their own freshness into you, and the storms their energy, while cares will drop off like autumn leaves.
The following Presentations/Clinics will be held at the Olympic Valley Event Center
1:30 p.m. - 2:45 p.m. CREWING A WESTERN STATES RUNNER - (Asst RD Bill Hambrick and Lon Monroe)
2:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. Official Western States 100 Pre-Race Interview Show, Presented by HOKA (Session #2). Broadcasting from the heart of Olympic Village, join co-hosts Dylan Bowman and Corrine Malcolm as they converse with some of the top contenders in the race, representatives from the WS organization, and significant characters from the event's history.
3:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. Ultrarunning Research and Performance - (Western States Medical Research Co-Directors Megan Roche, M. D. and Emily Kraus, M. D.)
4:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. Representation on the Trails panel, plus screening of the film “Know to Run” (Jordan Marie Whetstone of Rising Hearts and special guests from the Tribal and Ultra Community).
5:00 p.m. - 6:00 p.m. Trail Sisters DEI panel (Trail Sisters Founder Gina Lucrezi and featuring special guests).
6:00 p.m. Legends of Western States panel, Fireside Plaza in the Village (Presented by HOKA and featuring past champions and notable figures from Western States). RSVP here.
Also: 1 p.m.-3 p.m. “Second Sunrise: Five Decades of History at the Western States Endurance Run” book signing by author and WS Board member John Trent in the Western States/Fleet Feet Store.
FRIDAY, JUNE 23, 2023 ~ The Countdown Begins
8:30 a.m - 9:15 a.m. Coffee + Kinship Building ~ hosted by GU Energy Labs and Rising Hearts at Coffeebar, 1750 Village East Rd.
9:00 a.m. - 1:00 p.m. RACE REGISTRATION ~ located near the Start Line Arch at the Olympic Plaza. Attendance by all runners is mandatory.
9:00 a.m. - 1:00 p.m. DROP BAG DELIVERY ~ Runners must leave drop bags at the collection area near the corner of Squaw Peak and Squaw Valley Road (near the tram building) for Race Day distribution to checkpoints. Be sure to read important drop bag details.
9:00 a.m. - 11:00 a.m. Official Western States 100 Pre-Race Interview Show, Presented by HOKA (Session #3). Broadcasting from the heart of Olympic Village, join co-hosts Dylan Bowman and Corrine Malcolm as they converse with some of the top contenders in the race, representatives from the WS organization, and significant characters from the event's history.
10:00 a.m.HOKA High Camp Challenge ~ HOKA is challenging you to run to the top. From Basecamp to High Camp, you'll have the chance to run the first 3-miles of the official Western States Endurance Run before the race. Register here starting June 15th.
10:00 a.m. Washoe Tribe Cultural Presentation (Washoe Tribe Language and Culture Director Herman Fillmore, at High Camp)
10:00 a.m.-Noon “Second Sunrise: Five Decades of History at the Western States Endurance Run” book signing by author and WS Board member John Trent in the Western States/Fleet Feet Store.
2:00 p.m. RACE MEETING ~ outside near Start Line Arch. Attendance by all runners is mandatory. Bring a chair
SATURDAY, JUNE 24, 2023 ~ Race Day
3:30 a.m. COMPLIMENTARY BREAKFAST ~ served at the Olympic Plaza near the Start.
4:00 a.m. - 4:50 a.m. PRE-RACE CHECK-IN ~ located at the Olympic Plaza. Mandatory.
5:00 a.m. THE START!
SUNDAY, JUNE 25, 2023
5:00 a.m. SILVER BUCKLE WINNERS HAVE FINISHED.
11:00 a.m. BRONZE BUCKLE WINNERS HAVE FINISHED. END OF RUN.
8:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. CELEBRATION BREAKFAST ~ served at the Finish Line. Free to all entrants and volunteers. Crews, pacers, families and fans welcome; donations appreciated.
12:30 p.m. PRESENTATION OF AWARDS near the Finish Line at the Placer High School track.
IMPORTANT: If you are unable to attend the awards ceremony, please have someone else attend in your place so they can pick up your buckle for you. Finisher buckles may not be picked up early as finisher names are being engraved on the buckles. If you would like your buckle mailed to you, a $35 mailing fee must be received in the WS office by September 1st.
Drop bags must be claimed by 3:00 p.m., Sunday. Drop bags are located on the infield of the Placer High School track (the Finish Line). Any drop bags remaining at the track following the event may be disposed of. DO NOT leave valuables in your drop bags.
What they had done, what they had seen, heard, felt, feared – the places, the sounds, the colors, the cold, the bleakness, the beauty. Til they died, this stream of memory would set them apart, if imperceptibly from anyone but themselves....
Bernard De Voto