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WSER names Lamont King to Board of Directors

The Board of Directors for the Western States Endurance Run has named Lamont King, Western States volunteer, ultra runner and accomplished public pension fund lawyer, to the board, WSER president Diana Fitzpatrick announced.

“We are extremely pleased to have Lamont join our board,” Fitzpatrick said. “Lamont’s accomplishments and involvement in our sport as a volunteer and runner are incredibly impressive, as are his professional accomplishments. King currently serves as Deputy General Counsel for CalSTRS, the California State Teachers’ Retirement System, which is the second largest public pension fund in the country. King led the investment attorney division at CalSTRS for ten years prior to being appointed the first-ever Deputy General Counsel. In his current role he acts as liaison between the General Counsel and the Assistant General Counsels where he provides legal guidance and leadership on matters supporting the entire organization. 

“We wish to welcome Lamont to the board as our run faces an incredibly dynamic moment in our sport. Lamont’s experience and perspective as well as his leadership and professional skills will be incredibly helpful for our board and our organization as we look toward an exciting future.”

“I have been fortunate to enjoy Western States as a fan, volunteer, and runner,” King said. “I am beyond thrilled to have the opportunity to contribute as a WSER board member. I look forward to working with the board and the trail running community to continue the great legacy of Western States as the premier 100-mile endurance run.”

King, 50, started running ultras in 2014, inspired by the PBS documentary on Western States, “A Race for the Soul.” He has now finished more than 50 ultras, including Western States in 2022. He has been a volunteer at the Green Gate aid station and has also participated in numerous Western States trail stewardship days. He is a graduate of Allegheny College in Pennsylvania and received his juris doctor degree from Case Western Reserve University School of Law in Cleveland, Ohio. He also holds a CFA Institute Investment Foundations Certificate.


Here are the results of the independent Western States Endurance Run (WSER) Runner Survey from the June 24-25, 2023 race, conducted by ultralive.net.

WSER runner registration takes place in Olympic Valley Friday before race day and 2023 allowed for another year of the ultralive survey team to be in position. Runners are happy to participate while they wait in line for check-in providing us a 93.9% participation rate of the 379 starters.

Here are the surveys from 201420152016201720182019. and 2022.

Survey Questions

The runners were asked the following questions. Data was recorded by bib number allowing us to correlate the responses to finish times to make the analysis even more interesting. All data however is compiled and reported anonymously:

  • Number of 100’s completed
  • Number of years running ultras
  • Will they use a crew?
  • Will they use a pacer?
  • Did they attend the Memorial weekend training camp
  • Shoe brand
  • Sock brand
  • Pack type/brand
  • Lighting brand
  • Watch brand
  • Did they pay for coaching services?

This year’s race temps were “cool” and we saw the top 10 for women and men finish in very fast times. The top 10 women finished under 18:11 and the top 10 men finished under 16:09. Of the 379 starters we saw 328 finishers (86.5%) under 30 hours of which 110 (33.5%) finished under the coveted 24 hour mark for a Silver Buckle. The finish rate is the hightest rate since the early years when 100% completed (when only 1 runner on the course).

A total of 306 of the 328 finshers (93.3%) are in the survey.

Note: All graphs show numbers related to runners who participated in the survey and finished the race. DNS and DNF are not included in the final graphs.

Finish Hour

For sub 24 hour finishers completing the survey, 36 out of 110 (33%) finished in the 23rd hour of the race to get a silver buckle. This was slightly less than in the past couple of years most likely due to the cooler temperature which allowed for faster finish times. In the last two hours of the race, there were 121 (37%) finishers. The busiest times on the track are typically between 4-5 AM and 9-11 AM on Sunday morning and 2023 proved no different.

The graphs show the distribution of finishers by hour (14 hours to 29 hours), distribution of finishers by completed 100 mile races, and distribution of finishers by year of running ultras. Interestingly, many of the finishers over 24 hours have finished more than ten 100 mile races and have been running ultras over 10 years.

Despite the high country snow at the beginning of the race, the cool temperatures in this year’s race definitely attributed to the finish rate of 86.5%.


Again Hoka was the most popular shoe (38.2%) for all finishers with Altra in second place with 17.6% and Salomon in third (10.1%). The rankings stayed the same for the sub-24 hour finishers. Hoka has been the top brand in the survey since it started in 2014. We acknowledge some runners did plan to change shoes during the race and may have changed to a different brand so we asked that they provide the brand they planned on using most of the race.


Injinji is now the strong favorite for all finishers with Drymax coming in second again. The “other” category was quite large this year and runners seem to like a large variety of socks.

Paid Coaching Services

36% of the runners use a paid coaching service overall. Sub-24 hour finishers have fully embraced coaching now and nearly half (47%) use a coach.

Memorial Weekend Training Camp

The training camp held on Memorial Weekend is a great weekend to get on the course for those running, supporting or spectating the race. Attendance is up with 40% of finishers now attending the weekend. However, attending camp does not seem to decrease the chance of a DNF as 40% of the runners who did not complete the race were at the training camp.


Petzl’s remains the favorite light brand for all runners regardless of finish time (sub or over-24 hour) with Black Diamond second again.


Salomon was the top choice for all runners (sub 24 and overall) and at 50% is by far the most common pack in the race.


Garmin was the most popular watch overall in the survey. Coros is the second most popular and combined those two brands make up 90% of the watches worn in the race.

Crew and Pacer

The use of a crew and/or pacer are personal preference during a 100-mile race but may be more popular at WS. The following chart shows the correlation of using a pacer or crew to finish hour. In the overall survey, almost everyone (89%) planned on using a pacer.

Data Accuracy

379 runners started the 2023 Western States 100 Mile Endurance Run

Ultralive.net team surveyed a majority of those runners through the registration process at Olympic Valley. Final survey reflects N = 356 (93.9%) athletes though individual questions may vary if athlete did not answer or know answer. And also note that this analysis was done by amateur statisticians.


The team would like to thank all of the runners who took time to talk with us and answer these questions. Many thanks to the ultralive.net survey team: Kara Teklinski, Kati Laan and Janeth Siva.

Any feedback or insights are welcome!

2023 Race Recap


CONTACT: John Trent, media relations, (775) 842-4871, press@wser.org


Courtney Dauwalter shatters women’s course record, Tom Evans runs the fourth-fastest men’s time at 2023 WSER

In a sterling career that has seen Courtney Dauwalter record one superlative after another, her course record-setting effort on Saturday in winning the women’s race at the Western States Endurance Run was perhaps her best ever.

Dauwalter, 38, of Leadville, Colorado, shattered Ellie Greenwood’s longstanding 11-year-old course record by more than an hour in running 15 hours, 29 minutes and 33 seconds. Greenwood’s previous record set in 2012 was 16:47.

Dauwalter, in winning her second Western States in the past five years, became the first woman in WSER history to ever break 16 hours. She finished in sixth place overall.

What made Dauwalter’s new record all the more remarkable was the fact that she needed to negotiate about 20 miles of snow in the early going of the race. A heavy Sierra winter had left the “high country” portion of the course with near-record amounts of snow, but Dauwalter, a former collegiate Nordic skiing standout, bided her time well over the most difficult portion of this year’s course. She ran early with UTMB champion Katie Schide, but eventually began a searing surge from Robinson Flat (mile 30) on that saw her move into the top 10 overall by mile 70. Her 2-hour, 10-minute split from Foresthill (mile 62) and the Rucky Chucky river crossing (mile 78) was the fastest ever by a woman runner at Western States by more than 20 minutes. To put the split into perspective, consider that Jim Walmsley recorded a 2:05 split to the river in setting the men’s course record of 14:09.

“The day was so fun,” Dauwalter said. “I’m so thankful for all of the volunteers who were out on the course … and they also got the trail ready … it was absolutely beautiful out there. And it was very difficult and I’m happy to be here at the track with all of you.”

Schide, 31, of Gardiner, Maine, would also break Greenwood’s course record in finishing second in 16:43. Eszter Csillag, 38, a Hungarian living in Hong Kong, finished third in 17:09. The top nine women’s finishers all broke 18 hours – a first in Western States history, making the 2023 race the deepest women’s race in Western States history.

In the men’s race, Tom Evans, 31, of Loughborough, Great Britain, used a similar strategy to Dauwalter’s to win his first Western States title. Evans, who placed third in 2019, shared the lead with Dakota Jones throughout much of the early going, with the pair entering the Foresthill aid station at mile 62 even. From there, however, Evans ran a 2:07 split to the river crossing to take a commanding 16-minute lead over Tyler Green of Portland, Oregon. Evans would finish in 14:40, which is the fourth-fastest men’s race ever run at Western States. Green finished second in 15:04 with Anthony Costales of Salt Lake City third in 15:09.

“I think for me, this year, I put all my eggs in one basket to come to Western States and have my best possible day,” Evans said. “And yeah, I still can’t believe it myself. … This is my favorite race in the world.”

Although the snow might have made for tough conditions in the early going, weather conditions for this year’s run could not have been more favorable. Temperatures were in the low 80s throughout the day.

In all, the run saw 328 finishers, which tied 2010’s “Unbreakable” year for the most finishers in race history. The 50th Western States was the first time the race had been held on the Western States Trail since last fall’s 76,788-acre Mosquito Fire, which burned in California’s Placer and El Dorado Counties. The Mosquito Fire had a devastating impact on the communities in and around the Western States Trail, destroying 78 structures in Michigan Bluff, Foresthill and Volcanoville. The fire also charred about 16 miles of the Western States Trail. The work of Western States trail teams, in partnership with the U.S. Forest Service and the Auburn State Recreation Area, helped bring the trail back in time for this year’s event.

As has been the custom for Western States, the 2023 event featured many emotionally moving stories.

One of the most compelling was the story of Zach Bates. The 21-year-old resident of Lakeside, Arizona, earned a silver belt buckle with his time of 23:37. Zach’s finish at Western States was just the latest of many firsts for him. Diagnosed with autism, Zach earlier this year became the youngest finisher ever at the Coldwater Rumble. Zach’s ultra journey began when he went to his family on the night of his high school graduation and told them he wanted to run a 100-miler before he turned 20. This year’s Western States saw him earn one of the most coveted finisher’s awards in all of running.

John Almeda, who has been identified as having nonverbal autism, also finished 2023’s run. Almeda, 29, of Sacramento, California, finished in 27:07. Almeda’s progression in the sport has been remarkable, having moved from runs around a local high school track in Sacramento to the Boston Marathon to a finish in last November’s Rio Del Lago 100.

Earlier this year, John’s mother, Vanessa said of her son: “He just loves to run, and I feel like autism is his superpower. He just feels free energy and pure joy.”

Zach’s mother, Rana, said earlier this year: “If we listen to our children and allow them to do what they want to do and be a support to them, you’ll be surprised at where they’ll end up.”

And although there were 328 official finishers, one of the most emotional moments of this year’s run came after the horn at the 50-yard line of the Placer High School track sounded to signal the 30-hour cutoff.

61-year-old Ashley “Ash” Bartholomew of Melbourne, Australia, the father of internationally respected ultra runner Lucy Bartholomew, missed the official cutoff by 2 minutes and 20 seconds, finishing in 30:02. Bartholomew’s effort over the final 1.3 miles as his daughter and a huge group of friends and well-wishers urged him on gripped the WSER live broadcast as he bravely made his way to the Placer High School while fighting a severe forward lean and fatigue.

Although he missed the 30-hour cutoff, the crowd at Placer High School rose to its feet and gave Ash a huge ovation.

It was the second straight year that Western States’ final moments had captured the imagination of all who were in attendance. In 2022, cancer survivor Jennifer Shultis also narrowly missed the 30-hour cutoff but earned a standing ovation that was very reminiscent of Bartholomew’s finish on Sunday morning. Shultis’ husband, Richard Benoit, finished this year’s race (with Shultis serving as crew chief) in 24:48.

This year’s race commemorated the 50th Western States. In August 1974, Meadow Vista, California woodcutter Gordy Ainsleigh joined the horses of the Tevis Cup and covered the distance from Olympic Valley, California to Auburn, California entirely on foot in 23 hours and 42 minutes. Since then, more than 6,000 individuals have finished Western States.



CONTACT: John Trent, media relations, (775) 842-4871, press@wser.org


Following the devastating Mosquito Fire in the fall and a heavy winter snow, WSER is ready for one of its most memorable starts

The challenges facing this year’s 50th Western States Endurance Run presented by HOKA have certainly been formidable. But, according to Race Director Craig Thornley, who has helped lead a herculean effort over the past several months to bring the Western States Trail back from California’s largest wildfire as well as massive amounts of winter snow, the challenges were never insurmountable.

It all began during September-October’s 76,788-acre Mosquito Fire, which burned in California’s Placer and El Dorado Counties. The Mosquito Fire had a devastating impact on the communities in and around the Western States Trail, destroying 78 structures in Michigan Bluff, Foresthill and Volcanoville. The fire also charred about 16 miles of the Western States Trail. Then, just as trail restoration efforts were underway in the Middle Fork of the American River drainage in the late fall, winter snowfall left much of the “high country” of the WSER inaccessible until only the last few weeks.

“It’s been a challenging time for the race, that’s for certain,” Thornley said. “But Western States always finds a way. This year was no different. The trail volunteers who helped bring the trail back this spring were amazing in their belief and their commitment to our race. The snow has been melting, and again, thanks to our trail team and a number of key volunteers, we’ve been able to gain access to our key early aid stations at Lyon Ridge (mile 10) and Red Star Ridge (mile 16).

“An epic year requires an epic effort. It’s what Western States has always been about. It’s been extremely humbling to see the extreme lengths our people have put in to make sure Western States will be held on our normal course. Our volunteers, who are always at the heart of everything that we do, have been incredible this year.”

Saturday’s Western States will have its traditional start in Olympic Valley, California promptly at 5 a.m. The 100.2-mile event through the picturesque “high country” of the Granite Chief Wilderness and the historic canyons in and out of the Middle Fork of the American River then finishes at Placer High School in Auburn, California. 369 entrants from more than 30 countries will attempt to finish the course in under 30 hours – the run’s absolute time limit. A live broadcast will carry the action of this year’s run for the entire 30 hours. A link for the broadcast will be available on Saturday morning at www.wser.org

This year’s fields, on both the men’s and women’s sides, are among the most competitive WSER has ever assembled.

“It says something when we don’t have either our men’s champion (Adam Peterman, out with injury) or women’s champion (Ruth Croft, who had other racing commitments) back and the general consensus is that this could be the deepest race we’ve ever had,” Thornley said. “It’s going to be exciting to see how all of these really accomplished athletes are going to race not just against themselves, but on a course where in the high country, though it’s been melting, will still be highly disruptive and challenging.”

On the women’s side, five of last year’s top 10 are entered, including fifth-place finisher Emily Hawgood of Zimbabwe, who finished in 18:16. Other top 10’s who are returning include Leah Yingling (sixth in 18:32); Taylor Nowlin (seventh in 18:46); Camille Herron, who is fresh off a world 48-hour record of more than 270 miles, (eighth in 18:51); Katie Asmuth (ninth in 19:30).

2018 women’s champion Courtney Dauwalter of Leadville, Colorado, returns to Western States following a four-year absence. Her 2018 winning time of 17:27 was at the time the second-fastest women’s run ever at Western States. Western States will be the first leg of a challenging three-week double where Dauwalter will also attempt to win the Hardrock 100 in Colorado in mid-July.

Other notable entrants include 2022 UTMB champion Katie Schide, top Swedish runner Ida Nilsson who has excelled on the world stage at shorter distances and will be making her debut 100-mile effort at Western States, 2021 ninth-place finisher Keely Henninger, Heather Jackson, who is one of the world’s finest multi-discipline athletes, as well as 2016 women’s champion Kaci Lickteig.

The men’s race is highlighted by 2022 second-place finisher Hayden Hawks, who battled with Peterman through 70 miles of last year’s run before finishing in 15:47, as well as third-place finisher Arlen Glick, who ran 15:56, fourth-place finisher Tyler Green, who ran 15:57, France’s Ludovic Pommeret, who finished sixth in 16:20, Alex Nichols, who was eighth in 16:28, Cody Lind, who was ninth in 16:29, and Scott Traer, 10th in 16:35.

In addition, France’s Mathieu Blanchard is coming off a stirring duel with the legendary Kilian Jornet at the 2022 UTMB, where Blanchard finished second. The United Kingdom’s Tom Evans returns to Western States following a four-year hiatus – he finished third in 2019 in 14:59. Dakota Jones, a Salt Lake City resident whose ultra running career dates back to his days as a teenage phenom, will be making his Western States debut at age 32. Jones is coming off impressive victories at the Transvulcania ultra in the Canary Islands earlier this year, as well as at the Javelina 100 in October in the Arizona desert.

This year’s event will also feature a top age group entrant in Gene Dykes, who at age 75 will attempt to become WSER’s oldest finisher. Nicholas Bassett of Wyoming made history at age 73 with his finish in 2018, becoming the oldest runner to ever finish. The 2023 WSER is also part of the UTMB World Series, which is considered the world’s ultimate trail running circuit, uniting the sport’s biggest stars and runners of all abilities in more than three dozen events held worldwide.

Saturday’s start will also commemorate the 50th Western States. In August 1974, Meadow Vista, California woodcutter Gordy Ainsleigh joined the horses of the Tevis Cup and covered the distance from Olympic Valley, California to Auburn, California entirely on foot in 23 hours and 42 minutes. Since then, more than 6,000 individuals have finished Western States.

The Western States 100-Mile Endurance Run has a 369-runner field from throughout the United States and more than 30 countries. Runners start at 5 a.m. on Saturday, June 24, 2023, in Olympic Valley, Calif., and travel 100.2 miles, through the Sierra high country and the canyons of the American River, before finishing at Placer High School in Auburn, Calif.


John Catts, WSER and Tevis Trail Manager

In September of 2022 the Mosquito Fire burned 16 miles of the Western States Trail. Some areas burned extremely hot and in these areas there was very little organic matter left on the ground. Other areas did not burn as hot or burned in a mosaic pattern with some areas minimally affected. 

Before the fire was fully out, and continuing until early snow prevented further access, our partners with the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and Auburn State Recreation Area (ASRA), as well as CalFire, traversed the affected stretches of the Western States Trail and felled hazard trees. After the hazard trees were felled and bucked (cut into smaller sections and removed from the trail), our attention turned to erosion control and tread repair.  With little to no organic matter left in the upper soil horizon erosion occurs at a much faster rate, particularly when large rainfall events (like this winter) occur. As a result the main drainages and many previously insignificant drainages carried large amounts of water, rock, and soil downhill onto the trail, and in some locations erosion in some drainages undermined the trail.

In spite of weather-related constraints, we have made significant progress repairing damages caused by both the Mosquito Fire and once in a decade storms. Below is a summary of progress made to the trail on lands managed by ASRA and the USFS, as well as a description of a more complicated type of project (tread armoring), performed for several drainages in Eldorado Canyon (USFS).

Auburn State Recreation Area

ASRA has a sizable and qualified trail team that maintains its trails. Before the fire ASRA was committed to spending time and effort to re-bench the California Street Section of the Western States Trail this year.  To assist in this effort ASRA enlisted the services of the California Conservation Corps (CCC, Auburn office). Re-benching, using a trail machine (and by hand where trail machine access is not possible), involves removal of adjacent vegetation, and re-contouring the trail tread by removing sluff from the uphill side, removing any outboard berm, and creating a wide trail tread that has a 5% outboard slope, so water will sheet flow onto and off the trail and not down the trail. This allows us to shift the footprint of the trail created by years of use to the middle of the bench, which is much safer for animals and people. ASRA started this process with the CCC Crew and have been moving from Rucky Chucky towards Ford Bar, have taken a break due to weather, but will be back working eastward on May 3rd.

Meanwhile, on the 3.5 miles of the Western States Trail that burned in the Mosquito Fire (Dardanelles Creek to Patent Road Fire Break), our Trail Team spent the past 2 weekends repairing fire and storm damage. We cut what little vegetation remained within the trail corridor, removed eroded soil and rock from the trail tread, and to the extent possible with hand tools re-benched the trail. We also added erosion control features (waterbars) and repaired a few drainages. Photo #A is a completed stretch of trail, and Photo #B shows installation of a waterbar. Although the 3.5 miles of trail in ASRA that was burned in the Mosquito Fire is clear from obstructions and offers safe passage, there are still a few projects we need to complete, and the trail is still closed between Patent Road Fire Break and Dardanelles Creek.

Photo #A a completed stretch of trail
Photo #B installation of a waterbar

Tahoe National Forest, American River Ranger District

As containment of the Mosquito Fire reached 100% the USFS was busy felling hazard trees in Eldorado Canyon and along Deadwood Ridge, which in most places burned very hot. The American River Ranger District Trail Team relied on federal Burned Area Emergency Restoration (BAER) funds to continue working in Eldorado Canyon through the fall and winter as weather permitted.  Significant progress had been made restoring the trail in Eldorado Canyon.  Activities include installation of erosional controls (mostly water bars), removal of eroded soil and rock from the trail, removal of large stumps from the trail corridor from hazard tree felling or other fallen trees, repair of historic retaining walls, and repair of the trail at drainages.

With funding from WSER & Tevis, a trail team from Sierra Buttes Trail Stewardship (SBTS) joined the USFS Trail Team to help with this effort. SBTS spent much of February in Eldorado Canyon, left when the weather was unsuitable, but will be back in late March or early April. The WSER & Tevis Trail Team, provided assistance on volunteer days in December 2022 and January 2023, and plan to get back into Eldorado Canyon in April.  As the snow melts and access via Deadwood Road is available SBTS and our volunteer team will move east to Deadwood Ridge, and down to Swinging Bridge (the eastern extent of the burn on the Western States Trail). From there it’s business as usual to clear the remainder of the trail prior to our events (OK, there might be a bit more work this year with the deep snowpack).

Come join us on volunteer work days in April, May (to be posted soon) and June (https://www.wser.org/volunteering/trail-stewardship/).

A reminder that the Western States Trail from Michigan Bluff to Last Chance is still closed, as is Mosquito Ridge Road.

Tread Armoring Project

Many of the techniques we used to control erosion are visible to the trail user (log water bars, rock water bars, waddle, swales), but some methods used to control erosion and restore the trail tread are not immediately obvious to the trail user. Therefore, we thought it would be informative to describe, and show through photographs, a more complicated and labor-intensive type of trail project, tread armoring.

In drainages where erosion has caused the trail tread to be narrowed and weakened the potential repairs include construction of retaining walls or tread armoring. In Eldorado Canyon re-routing a trail is not an option, because side slopes are often extremely steep, and the historical designation of the trail prevents re-routing without extensive studies and analysis. On the east side of Eldorado Canyon several of the badly eroded drainages had ample large rock available, and tread armoring was the preferred restoration technique.

Photo #1 drainage before

Photo #1 shows the condition of a drainage before the project was started. Note the quantity of rock that had been transported down the barren slope.

Photo #2 drainage after removal of debris

Photo #2 depicts the same drainage, from the opposite side, following removal of debris from the trail tread. Note the deeply incised drainage above & below the trail and narrowed and unstable trail tread.

The next steps in the repair are to quarry suitable rock and excavate the trail tread to provide a stable base on which quarried rock will be placed. Large rocks of uniform thickness with flat surfaces are located and are transported to the site using rock slings, or if the rock is above or below the repair site lowered by hand or a grip hoist with a sling and moved with rock bars (Photo #3) or lifted up onto the trail with a grip hoist and rock bars.

Photo #3 griphoist

Photo #4 shows the excavation of the trail tread to create a stable base for the placement of quarried rock. Since the downhill edge of the trail tread in the drainage was eroded and undermined, we excavated into the uphill side of the drainage, creating a gentle curve to the trail alignment, to make adequate room for the required tread width.

Photo #4 excavation of the trail tread

Finding the best large rock, to be placed on the outboard side in the middle of the drainage, is key (Photo #5).  Within the trail teams there are often calls for “get a bigger rock”. When set, this stone needs to be stable or the underlying soil needs to be further removed to be stable, without the use of shims (so it stays stable over time). Other rocks will be placed carefully next to this keystone to lock into this main rock and each needs to be adjusted to be stable by turning, flipping, or selectively removing soil beneath it until it is stable.  Photo #6 shows the final placement of these large rocks at this specific site.  It also shows that to create long lasting stability and prevent erosion, the space between all these rocks was filled with crush (smaller pieces of rock created by breaking up shaley rock with a small sledge hammer).

Photo #5 outboard rock placement
Photo #6 filling with crush

When all the interstitial space between rocks has been filled with crush, soil can be placed on top. For longevity and safety its best to either place large rock on the outboard edge to keep users off the outboard edge, and if possible outboard barrier rock can be set deeply into the outboard edge of the tread. Photo #7 shows the armoring repair nearing completion.

Photo #7 armoring nearing completion

With the trail armored where a drainage crosses, any new material eroded onto the trail is easily removed.

So the next time you see a stretch of trail that looks like this, know there is a solid base beneath your feet (or your horses feet or wheels) and that a lot of work went into it.